This is an article on castration sent out by Dr. David Anderson
of Ohio State University.
Castration of Camelids: When, Where, Why
Practicing veterinarians offering service to clients owning camelids are routinely asked for advice
on castration of pet quality males. Superficially, this might appear to be a simple question, but
there has been significant debate on this issue. At the center of the debate is a concern for
musculoskeletal maturation of males after prepubertal castration. Breeders would prefer to castrate
males at 4 to 6 months old so that they may be sold as pets soon after weaning. Veterinarians would
prefer to see camelids castrated at 18 to 24 months after they have reached skeletal height maturity.
EFFECTS OF PREPUBERTAL CASTRATION
Castration of males at an early age has been shown in several species to delay the closure of
long-bone physes. Therefore, geldings may develop a tall, straight legged stature (particularly
of the hind limbs). In llamas, lateral patellar luxation and early onset of degenerative osteoarthritis
of the stifle joints have been seen as complications of this posture. Historical data usually reveals
that affected males were castrated at an early age (e.g. 4 months).
Basically, any castration method that has been used in other livestock and pet animals has been
done successfully in camelids. However, two methods have become standards of practice: scrotal
castration (similar to horses and swine) and pre-scrotal castration (similar to canine). I prefer
to administer tetanus toxoid vaccination and procaine penicillin G (22,000 U/kg, q24h x 3 d) to
each animal. All food should be with held for 12 hours prior to castration in case general anesthesia
or heavy sedation becomes necessary.
Scrotal castration can be done with the animal standing or recumbent (I prefer recumbent). For
standing castration, the camelid is sedated with xylazine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, IM) and butorphanol
(0.1 mg/kg, IM) and an epidural is administered (2 ml, 2% lidocaine; or 10 mg xylazine in 2 ml sterile
normal saline). The scrotum is prepared for aseptic surgery and, if an epidural was not used, 2 ml
lidocaine is injected as a line block along the median raphe. A 2 cm incision is made on either side
and parallel to the median raphe along the ventral most aspect of the scrotum. Each testicle is removed
and excised either using an emasculator or after transfixation ligation with No 0 chromic gut (I prefer
transfixation ligation). Topical antiseptic and fly spray are applied. For recumbency, xylazine
(0.2 mg/kg, IV), butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg, IV), and ketamine (1 to 2 mg/kg, IV) are used.
Pre-scrotal castration is done with the animal recumbent. Strict aseptic technique is critical to
ensure that infection of the castration site does not develop. A 2 cm incision is made on ventral
midline immediately cranial to the ventral base of the scrotum. Each testicle is removed through
this incision and excised after transfixation ligation. After hemostasis has been achieved, the skin
incision is closed using a subcuticular or subcutaneous suture pattern. I prefer not to place skin
sutures so that removal of sutures is not necessary.
I recommend that camelids be confined to a small pen for 24 to 48 hours after scrotal castration.
Confinement is not needed after pre-scrotal castration. Owners should monitor the incision for
bleeding, swelling, exudative discharge, fly infestation, difficulty urinating, and any other
problems. Although complications are uncommon, the consequences of postoperative problems can
be devastating to the owner.
David E Anderson, D.V.M., MS, Diplomate ACVS
College of Veterinary Medicine
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
1. Baird AN, Pugh DG, Wenzel JGW, Lin HC. Comparison of two castration techniques
for castration of llamas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:261-262.
2. Pugh DG, Baird AN, Wolfe DF, Wenzel JGW, Lin HC. A pre-scrotal castration technique for llamas.
Equine Practice 1994;16:26-28.
3. Barrington GM, Meyer TF, Parish SM. Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate
and local anesthesia.
Equine Practice 1993;15:35-39.
4. Dargatz DA, Johnson LW. Castrating the llama: a step-by-step guide. Veterinary Medicine
Routine Camelid Procedures - Castration
Dr. David Anderson March 8, 2019
David E Anderson, DVM, MS, DACVS College of Veterinary Medicine Kansas State
University, Manhattan, KS
Castration of llamas and alpacas may be chosen to allow commingling of
pet or fiber producing males and females, to restrict the available
genetic pool, to lessen aggressive behavior, and to create gelding males
to be sold as pets or show animals.
of Castration -- Preoperative Preparation --
General Anesthesia -- Discussion of Results
SPAY (Neutering Females)
Spay is to remove the ovaries of a female
animal. Spaying a llama is not that common, but
it can be done successfully with no repercussions. A lot of the
success may be based on how experienced your vet may be with the
Niki Kuklenski of JNK Llamas
shared has had experience with neutering females and
has shared the following information from her veterinarian:
following is an overview of the work we did. We spoke with Dr. Tibary
several years ago and formed a protocol that we followed, and did
develop some proficiencies during that time.
will have to review our anesthesia; we did use gas but I do not
recall if it was halothane or isoflurane; also I need to find the
was ventral mid-line, just in front (cranial) to the udder. We ID'd
the uterus, isolated the ovaries and limited our surgery to an
ovariectomy (only ovaries removed, uterus was not removed). Based on
the few that we did, I do not recall any obvious problems with the
surgery, the recovery or with behavior issues.
especially with gas is technically challenging. Over-conditioned
animals were also more difficult.
there is a veterinarian that would like to discuss they can contact
us. It would take us some time to retrieve the actual records of our
surgeries and they also fall under veterinary-client
confidentiality. I will be unavailable for a couple of weeks, Drs.
Schwab and Plotts were the other teammates in the surgeries we did.
michael j. anderson"
you have questions, Niki would be a good contact person for
Another Look at Neutering Females
The question re: neutering females was
posted to the head of the Camelid Dept. at the Ohio State Vet Hospital - Dr.
Jeff Lakritz. His response follows:
"Females can be ovariectomized instead of removing the entire
uterus. It would still require a surgery, however it can be done in the
traditional manner with incision in flank or via laparoscopy through 2 small
holes (maybe 3 small holes) one for laprascope to watch and the other for
Jeff Lakritz can be contacted for further information.
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